Gramsci“Ideologies are anything but arbitrary; they are the result of historical facts which must be combated and their nature as instruments of domination revealed, not for reasons of morality etc.; but for reasons of political struggle: in order to make the governed intellectually independent of the governing, in order to destroy one hegemony and create another one.”
 Gramsci, A. 1999 The Antonio Gramsci Reader. Ed. Forgacs, D. Lawrence and Wishart: London, p196

Thomas Hobbes

“Hereby it is manifest, that during the time when men lived without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, as is of every man, against every man.”
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, XIII, 1651

“Hence it is evident, that Absolute Monarchy, which by some men is counted as the only government in the World, is indeed inconsistent with civil society, and so can be no form of Civil Government at all.”
John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, 1689

“For where the owner of the plough comes to have the sword, too, he will use it in defence of his own; whence it has happened that the people of Oceana, in proportion to their property, have always been free.”
James Harrington, The Commonwealth of Oceana, 1656

“In every republic there are two different inclinations: that of the people and that of the upper class, and that all the laws which are made in favour of liberty are born of the conflict between the two.” 
Niccolò Machiavelli, The Discourses, chap. IV. 1517

“I would have wished to be born in a country where the sovereign and the people could have only a single and identical interest, so that all the movements of the civil machine always tended to promote the common happiness and since this is something that cannot happen unless the sovereign and the people are one and the same person, it follows that I would have wished to be born under a wisely tempered democratic government.”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, A Discourse on Inequality, 1754

“What effectively distinguishes the citizen proper from all others is his participation in giving judgement and holding office.”

Aristotle, The Politics III i

“And I believe that scarce anything can be more absurdly said in natural philosophy than that which is called now Aristotle’s Metaphysics; nor more repugnant to government than much that he hath said in his Politics, nor more ignorantly,than a great part of his Ethics.”

Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan

“It may be concluded that a pure democracy, by which I mean a society consisting of a small number of citizens, who assemble and administer the government in person, can admit of no cure for the mischiefs of faction. A common passion or interest will, in almost every case, be felt by a majority of the whole; a communication and concert result from the form of government itself; and there is nothing to check the inducements to sacrifice the weaker party or an obnoxious individual.”

Publius (James Madison), 1788 Federalist X


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